Orifice

Fixed orifice

Description

The Orifice component models a sharp-edge orifice with a circular opening of a given area.

 Formulation Approaches Two approaches were taken for formulation of the flow equation inside the device. When the boolean parameter $\mathrm{Use constant Cd}$ is true, a constant coefficient of discharge (${C}_{d}$) is used, otherwise a variable coefficient of discharge with maximum value (${C}_{d\left(\mathrm{max}\right)}$) and a critical flow number (${\mathrm{Crit}}_{\mathrm{no}}$) are used.
 Optional Volumes The boolean parameters Use volume A and Use volume B, when true, add optional volumes ${V}_{A}$  and ${V}_{B}$ to ports A and B, respectively. See Port Volumes for details. If two orifices or valves are connected, enabling a volume at the common port reduces the stiffness of the system and improves the solvability.
 Equations $p={p}_{A}-{p}_{B}$ ${A}_{\mathrm{cs}}=A$ $\mathbf{Orifice Fluid Equations}$ $\left\{\begin{array}{cc}p=\frac{\mathrm{\pi }}{4}\frac{\mathrm{\rho }\mathrm{\nu }q}{{C}_{d}^{2}{A}_{\mathrm{cs}}\sqrt{\mathrm{\pi }{A}_{\mathrm{cs}}}}{\left(\frac{16{q}^{4}}{{\mathrm{\pi }}^{2}{A}_{\mathrm{cs}}^{2}{\mathrm{\nu }}^{4}}+{\mathrm{\Re }}_{\mathrm{Cr}}^{4}\right)}^{\frac{1}{4}}& \mathrm{Use constant Cd}=\mathrm{true}\\ q={C}_{d\left(\mathrm{max}\right)}\mathrm{tanh}\left(4\frac{\sqrt{\frac{{A}_{\mathrm{cs}}}{\mathrm{\pi }}\frac{2\left|p\right|}{\mathrm{\rho }}}}{\mathrm{\nu }{\mathrm{Crit}}_{\mathrm{no}}}\right){A}_{\mathrm{cs}}\sqrt{\frac{2\left|p\right|}{\mathrm{\rho }}}\mathrm{sign}\left(p\right)& \mathrm{otherwise}\end{array}$ $\mathbf{Optional Volume Equations}$ ${V}_{{f}_{A}}=\left\{\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{Va}\left(1+\frac{{p}_{A}}{\mathrm{El}}\right)& \mathrm{Use volume A}=\mathrm{true}\\ 0& \mathrm{otherwise}\end{array}\phantom{\rule[-0.0ex]{5.0ex}{0.0ex}}{V}_{{f}_{B}}=\left\{\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{Vb}\left(1+\frac{{p}_{B}}{\mathrm{El}}\right)& \mathrm{Use volume B}=\mathrm{true}\\ 0& \mathrm{otherwise}\end{array}$ $q={q}_{A}-{q}_{{V}_{A}}=-\left({q}_{B}-{q}_{{V}_{B}}\right)$ ${q}_{{V}_{A}}=\left\{\begin{array}{cc}\frac{\mathrm{d}{V}_{{f}_{A}}}{\mathrm{d}t}& \mathrm{Use volume A}=\mathrm{true}\\ 0& \mathrm{otherwise}\end{array}\phantom{\rule[-0.0ex]{4.0ex}{0.0ex}}{q}_{{V}_{B}}=\left\{\begin{array}{cc}\frac{\mathrm{d}{V}_{{f}_{B}}}{\mathrm{d}t}& \mathrm{Use volume B}=\mathrm{true}\\ 0& \mathrm{otherwise}\end{array}$

Variables

 Name Units Description Modelica ID $p$ $\mathrm{Pa}$ Pressure drop from A to B p ${p}_{X}$ $\mathrm{Pa}$ Pressure at port X pX $q$ $\frac{{m}^{3}}{s}$ Flow rate from A to B q ${q}_{X}$ $\frac{{m}^{3}}{s}$ Flow into port X qX ${q}_{\mathrm{VX}}$ $\frac{{m}^{3}}{s}$ Flow rate into port X's optional volume qVX ${V}_{{f}_{X}}$ ${m}^{3}$ Effective volume at port X VfX

Connections

 Name Description Modelica ID $\mathrm{portA}$ Upstream hydraulic port portA $\mathrm{portB}$ Downstream hydraulic port portB

Parameters

General

 Name Default Units Description Modelica ID $A$ $1·{10}^{-6}$ ${m}^{2}$ Area of opening A $\mathrm{Use constant Cd}$ $\mathrm{true}$ True (checked) means a constant coefficient of discharge is implemented, otherwise a variable ${C}_{d}$ is used in flow calculation UseConstantCd ${C}_{d}$ $0.7$ Flow-discharge coefficient; used when $\mathrm{Use constant Cd}$ is true Cd ${\mathrm{\Re }}_{\mathrm{Cr}}$ $12$ Reynolds number at critical flow; used when $\mathrm{Use constant Cd}$ is true ReCr ${C}_{d\left(\mathrm{max}\right)}$ $0.7$ Maximum flow-discharge coefficient; used when $\mathrm{Use constant Cd}$ is false Cd_max ${\mathrm{Crit}}_{\mathrm{no}}$ $1000$ Critical flow number; used when $\mathrm{Use constant Cd}$ is false Crit_no

Optional Volumes

 Name Default Units Description Modelica ID $\mathrm{Use volume A}$ $\mathrm{false}$ True (checked) means a hydraulic volume chamber is added to portA useVolumeA ${V}_{A}$ $1·{10}^{-6}$ ${m}^{3}$ Volume of chamber A Va $\mathrm{Use volume B}$ $\mathrm{false}$ True (checked) means a hydraulic volume chamber is added to portB useVolumeB ${V}_{B}$ $1·{10}^{-6}$ ${m}^{3}$ Volume of chamber B Vb

 Name Units Description Modelica ID $\mathrm{\nu }$ $\frac{{m}^{2}}{s}$ Kinematic viscosity of fluid nu $\mathrm{\rho }$ $\frac{\mathrm{kg}}{{m}^{3}}$ Density of fluid rho $\mathrm{El}$ $\mathrm{Pa}$ Bulk modulus of fluid El